Problem #1405


On each side of a unit square, an equilateral triangle of side length 1 is constructed. On each new side of each equilateral triangle, another equilateral triangle of side length 1 is constructed. The interiors of the square and the 12 triangles have no points in common. Let $R$ be the region formed by the union of the square and all the triangles, and $S$ be the smallest convex polygon that contains $R$. What is the area of the region that is inside $S$ but outside $R$?

$\textbf{(A)} \; \frac {1}{4} \qquad \textbf{(B)} \; \frac {\sqrt {2}}{4} \qquad \textbf{(C)} \; 1 \qquad \textbf{(D)} \; \sqrt {3} \qquad \textbf{(E)} \; 2 \sqrt {3}$

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Instructions for entering answers:

  • Reduce fractions to lowest terms and enter in the form 7/9.
  • Numbers involving pi should be written as 7pi or 7pi/3 as appropriate.
  • Square roots should be written as sqrt(3), 5sqrt(5), sqrt(3)/2, or 7sqrt(2)/3 as appropriate.
  • Exponents should be entered in the form 10^10.
  • If the problem is multiple choice, enter the appropriate (capital) letter.
  • Enter points with parentheses, like so: (4,5)
  • Complex numbers should be entered in rectangular form unless otherwise specified, like so: 3+4i. If there is no real component, enter only the imaginary component (i.e. 2i, NOT 0+2i).

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