Problem #2225


The figures $F_1$, $F_2$, $F_3$, and $F_4$ shown are the first in a sequence of figures. For $n\ge3$, $F_n$ is constructed from $F_{n - 1}$ by surrounding it with a square and placing one more diamond on each side of the new square than $F_{n - 1}$ had on each side of its outside square. For example, figure $F_3$ has $13$ diamonds. How many diamonds are there in figure $F_{20}$?

[asy] unitsize(3mm); defaultpen(linewidth(.8pt)+fontsize(8pt));  path d=(1/2,0)--(0,sqrt(3)/2)--(-1/2,0)--(0,-sqrt(3)/2)--cycle; marker m=marker(scale(5)*d,Fill); path f1=(0,0); path f2=(0,0)--(-1,1)--(1,1)--(1,-1)--(-1,-1); path[] g2=(-1,1)--(-1,-1)--(0,0)^^(1,-1)--(0,0)--(1,1); path f3=f2--(-2,-2)--(-2,0)--(-2,2)--(0,2)--(2,2)--(2,0)--(2,-2)--(0,-2); path[] g3=g2^^(-2,-2)--(0,-2)^^(2,-2)--(1,-1)^^(1,1)--(2,2)^^(-1,1)--(-2,2); path[] f4=f3^^(-3,-3)--(-3,-1)--(-3,1)--(-3,3)--(-1,3)--(1,3)--(3,3)-- (3,1)--(3,-1)--(3,-3)--(1,-3)--(-1,-3); path[] g4=g3^^(-2,-2)--(-3,-3)--(-1,-3)^^(3,-3)--(2,-2)^^(2,2)--(3,3)^^ (-2,2)--(-3,3);  draw(f1,m); draw(shift(5,0)*f2,m); draw(shift(5,0)*g2); draw(shift(12,0)*f3,m); draw(shift(12,0)*g3); draw(shift(21,0)*f4,m); draw(shift(21,0)*g4); label("$F_1$",(0,-4)); label("$F_2$",(5,-4)); label("$F_3$",(12,-4)); label("$F_4$",(21,-4)); [/asy]

$\mathrm{(A)}\ 401 \qquad \mathrm{(B)}\ 485 \qquad \mathrm{(C)}\ 585 \qquad \mathrm{(D)}\ 626 \qquad \mathrm{(E)}\ 761$

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Instructions for entering answers:

  • Reduce fractions to lowest terms and enter in the form 7/9.
  • Numbers involving pi should be written as 7pi or 7pi/3 as appropriate.
  • Square roots should be written as sqrt(3), 5sqrt(5), sqrt(3)/2, or 7sqrt(2)/3 as appropriate.
  • Exponents should be entered in the form 10^10.
  • If the problem is multiple choice, enter the appropriate (capital) letter.
  • Enter points with parentheses, like so: (4,5)
  • Complex numbers should be entered in rectangular form unless otherwise specified, like so: 3+4i. If there is no real component, enter only the imaginary component (i.e. 2i, NOT 0+2i).

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