Problem #2347


Let $k$ be a positive integer. Bernardo and Silvia take turns writing and erasing numbers on a blackboard as follows: Bernardo starts by writing the smallest perfect square with $k+1$ digits. Every time Bernardo writes a number, Silvia erases the last $k$ digits of it. Bernardo then writes the next perfect square, Silvia erases the last $k$ digits of it, and this process continues until the last two numbers that remain on the board differ by at least 2. Let $f(k)$ be the smallest positive integer not written on the board. For example, if $k = 1$, then the numbers that Bernardo writes are $16, 25, 36, 49, 64$, and the numbers showing on the board after Silvia erases are $1, 2, 3, 4,$ and $6$, and thus $f(1) = 5$. What is the sum of the digits of $f(2) + f(4)+ f(6) + ... + f(2016)$?

$\textbf{(A)}\ 7986\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 8002\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 8030\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 8048\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 8064$

This problem is copyrighted by the American Mathematics Competitions.

Note: you aren't logged in. If you log in, we'll keep a record of which problems you've solved.

Instructions for entering answers:

  • Reduce fractions to lowest terms and enter in the form 7/9.
  • Numbers involving pi should be written as 7pi or 7pi/3 as appropriate.
  • Square roots should be written as sqrt(3), 5sqrt(5), sqrt(3)/2, or 7sqrt(2)/3 as appropriate.
  • Exponents should be entered in the form 10^10.
  • If the problem is multiple choice, enter the appropriate (capital) letter.
  • Enter points with parentheses, like so: (4,5)
  • Complex numbers should be entered in rectangular form unless otherwise specified, like so: 3+4i. If there is no real component, enter only the imaginary component (i.e. 2i, NOT 0+2i).

For questions or comments, please email

Find out how your skills stack up!

Try our new, free contest math practice test. All new, never-seen-before problems.

AMC/AIME classes

I offer online AMC/AIME classes periodically. Join the mailing list to be informed next time they're offered.

Private coaching is also available.